Electrophoresis is a technique used by scientists in the laboratory used to separate DNA, RNA, or molecules or proteins based on their size and electrical charge. An electrical current is used to move the molecules and separate them through a gel. The pores of the gel act like a strainer, allowing smaller molecules to move faster than larger ones. The conditions used during electrophoresis can be adjusted to separate molecules in the desired size range.
This way in which this technique is used has a variety of practical uses, such as forensic medicine for the identification of people, the human genome project, protein and genetic mutation research, and clinical diagnostic tests.
Electrophoresis is carried out with equipment composed of a negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other. When inserting charged molecules, in this environment, the negative ones will go to one extreme and the positive ones to the other corresponding.